Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder and Forms of reduced lung function

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)  is a group of progressive lung diseases. The most common are Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis. Many people with COPD have both of these conditions. Long-term exposure to chemical irritants and more tobacco smoking leads to COPD which

usually takes a long time to develop. Detection involves imaging tests, blood tests, and lung function tests. Treatment such medications, supplemental oxygen therapy and surgery may help to improve quality of life and lower the chance of complications. But there is no cure for COPD

Untreated COPD can lead to a faster progression of disease, heart problems, and worsening respiratory infections. Symptoms  will vary depending upon the severity it caused in the body. Among different grading systems, most commoly used   method to measure COPD is Spirometry grading, is a part of GOLD classification. The GOLD classification is used for determining COPD severity and helping to form a prognosis and treatment plan. There are four GOLD grades based on spirometry testing, They are:

Grade 1: mild

Grade 2: moderate

Grade 3: severe

Grade 4: very severe

Treatment for COPD includes Medication, Oxygen therapy, Surgery, Lung transplantation, Lifestyle changes. Medications for COPD are:

  • Inhaled Bronchodilators
  • Corticosteroids
  • Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors
  • Theophylline Antibiotics and Antivirals
  • Vaccines
  • Bullectomy

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